History of Guyana
Opening of America. Opening of Guyana.
It is recognized that mark the opening of South America belong to Christopher Columbus.
There are many legends about the discovery of South America in ancient times, of sailing to its shores the Egyptians, Normans, Phoenicians. However, the official discovery of America is still made by Christopher Columbus.
In its maiden voyage in 1492 he reached the Atlantic islands, which are considered the coast of western India and, accordingly, called the West Indies.
The third voyage in 1498 he reached the coast of South America, but did not know that this continent.
Only studies Amerigo Vespucci gave us a description of the new land. He first proposed that open land is a new continent, not the coast of Asia. In his honor, South America got its name. Later the name was extended to two continents.
The discovery of South America brought the destruction of unique civilizations that have developed here. Following the pioneers in South America, thousands flocked conquistadors. They are attracted to the legends of fabulous states profusion of gold and new lands. Of the Incas, Mayans, the Aztecs were destroyed, while South America has become a colony of Spain and Portugal for many centuries.
Not escaped the fate of the continent, and Guyana.
Before the Europeans arrived in what is now Guyana, lived Indians, ancestors of the modern tribes uarrau, uayka, guaharibo, engaged in hunting, fishing and gathering. In 1499, Guiana coast was discovered Spanish conquistador Alonso de Ojeda, in 1500 landed on the shore VY Pinson. In the 16th century. Europeans are increasingly interested in Guiana, hoping to find here a fabulous land of gold - El Dorado. An attempt to establish a Spanish settlement in 1530 has met fierce resistance from the Indians. Not able to find the legendary wealth and British expedition Walter Raleigh (1595).
The first European settlement was founded in 1581 by the Dutch bank r.Pomerun. In the late 1590s they established a fort on the island at the mouth of r.Essekibo, which became the stronghold of colonization. In 1621 the Dutch West India Company received the right to exploit a large part in what is now Guyana. The Dutch tried to confront the British, but in 1667 the English settlement in what is now Guyana, were captured by the Netherlands.
By 1773 there developed three Dutch colonies - the Essequibo, Demerara and Berbice.
Colonizers divided the plantation of sugar cane, laid mines and steel to import African slaves. The brutal exploitation has led to a major in 1763, an uprising of slaves led by Caffi, it failed to suppress only the troops, transferred from the West Indies. In 1781, during the war, the North American colonies for independence, the British captured the Dutch colony, in 1782 the French established a fort at the mouth of r.Demerara, gave rise to the settlement Longchamp. In 1783 the colony was returned to the Dutch.
They renamed the Longchamp in Stabruk and made it a center of the colony Demerara.
In 1796-1802 the Dutch colonies in Guyana have been re-captured by the English, then returned to their former owners, but in 1803 again came into the hands of Great Britain, which was sealed peace treaties in 1814. The British renamed Stabruk in Georgetown (1812), and in 1831 merged into a single three colonies - British Guiana.
The first time the foundation of the economy remained slave labor. It was widely used for growing sugar plantations, construction of dams, carrying out drainage works and irrigation systems.
In 1834 slavery was abolished. Former slaves were leaving the countryside and migrated to the cities. In order to fill labor shortages in agriculture, the colonial authorities began to import the Portuguese (1835), Indian (1838) and Chinese workers. In the 1880s began to emerge and the first Indian farmers.
In 1886, between Great Britain, on the one hand, Brazil and Venezuela, on the other hand, there was a diplomatic conflict on the borders of British Guiana. In the US-brokered diplomatic conflict was settled by 1899 in favor of the United Kingdom.
The colony was ruled by a governor, which operated from 1891 political body with the participation of officials and some members elected by an electoral college.
But the urban population made up of African Americans and the Portuguese, sought reform. The need to improve the financial situation prompted British authorities to establish a British Guiana in 1928, the Legislative Council, part of which is elected by popular vote. In 1938, after riots in the British colonies in the West Indies, a royal commission headed by Lord Moyne encouraged to give greater powers of local authorities.
In 1943, election law have been increased, and in 1945 - expanded the electoral rights of citizens.